Chapter 10 (Manufacturing and Process Development Metrology) covers the measurements that enable all aspects of semiconductor materials and device research, development, and manufacturing. Characterization and Metrology are used off-line, at-line, and in-line and include all aspects of physical and electrical measurements. Characterization and metrology cover length-scales from atomic to macro measurements. Exploration into new materials and structures is characterization intensive, and in-fab metrology use increases as process technology become more mature. This chapter describes the characterization and metrology for all areas of the Microelectronics and Advanced Packaging Technologies (MAPT) roadmap from materials and devices to advanced packaging and heterogeneous integration and systems.